Wine 101Everything you wanted to know about wine.
Looking for a wine 101 course? You’ve come to the right place. We have published our free”Wine 101 Guide” to help the novice wine enthusiast feel comfortable buying wine, reading a wine list, and overall just enjoying wine more.
Does wine intimidate you? It shouldn’t. There are some wine basics you should know. Once you’ve reviewed this page, you’ll be in a better position than ever: enjoying wine rather than worrying about your lack of wine knowledge.
If you live in the Philadelphia Area, you can learn about wine the fun way. We offer a number of introductory wine classes.
- Discover Your Wine Style
Learn what you like and why
- Wine 101: Learn About Wine
The classic intro class
- Sommelier Secrets
Tricks of the trade
- Great Wine Made Simple
Learn to read wine labels
- The Wine Trials
Learn about wine ratings
- Wine Smarts
A primer on wine language and terms
- World Atlas of Wine
The eight essential wine regions
- The Essential Grapes
The most important wine grapes
Learn About Wine
Wine 101 Classes
The Wine 101 Guide
Learn About Wine
A handy guide to all things wine. Enjoy and never drink boring wine!
Decode the Wine Label
Wine labels have a lot of information on them. Some of it is critical to understanding what is in the bottle, and some of it is just blowing smoke. There are five basic elements to a wine label.
- Winery Name (Producer)
- The region: where the grapes were grown.
- The grape varietal, usually
- The vintage year: The year the grapes were harvested.
- Alcohol by Volume (ABV)
There is a major difference between OLD WORLD and NEW WORLD wine labels. Countries that have been producing wine for centuries (the Old World) don’t tend to put the name of the wine grape on the label. There are exceptions to the rule, but for the most part, you can assume that wines from Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal won’t list the grape on the label.
The Major Wine Grapes
Did you know there over 10,000 different types of wine grapes? Even one of our Master Sommeliers can’t memorize them all. Good thing you don’t have to. There are only ten grapes you really need to know. Why? Because over 95% of wines are made from these grapes.
Keep in mind that the grape names aren’t always listed on the label, especially wine from Europe.
- Pinot Grigio
- Sauvignon Blanc
- Pinot Noir
- Cabernet Sauvignon
Don’t worry about buying a ton of wine books just yet. If you’re serious about wine, it’s better to taste a lot of wines. We aren’t suggesting binge drinking: Wine groups, tastings with friends, and (most importantly) wine classes are your best avenue to learning about wine.
Tricks of the Wine Trade
There are a few tricks sommeliers do to make sure any wine tastes better when it’s served. Try them at home.
- Decant Red Wines. Giving wine some air is going to increase the flavor.
- Serving temperature is key: Serve reds at 70 and Whites at 55 degrees Fahrenheit .
- Wine always tastes better with cheese and worse with fresh fruit.
- Throw in some snob appeal. Studies show people like wine more when they think it’s expensive. Tsk, tsk: that’s cheating!
Want to be a sommelier? It doesn’t really matter what sommelier certification program you sign up for. The three major ones are the Wine & Spirit Education Trust, the Court of Master Sommeliers, and the National Wine School. All three offer the same certification and qualifications. They just use different trademarked terminology. Master Sommelier? Master of Wine? Master Diploma? They are all equal the same level of federal certification.
The 411 on Wine Ratings
Ever wonder how some wines get 84 Points and some get a 92? Ever wonder if wines taste better if they have a higher rating? Here a few sobering pointers on wine ratings:
- The four of the six major wine publications use the 100 point scale.
- The scale judges correctness, not tastiness.
- Ratings for the same wine the are often wildly contradictory.
- The lowest rating possible is 50 points; very few earn over 94 points.
- The majority of people prefer wines that are rated between 74 & 89 points.
- A number of critics have been accused of trading good ratings for payoffs.
Did you know that over 80% of wine drinkers prefer lower rated wines? High ratings doesn’t mean a wine is more delicious; A 90+ rating doesn’t mean the wine tastes better. Ratings are designed to reflect if a wine is varietally and regionally correct. This is really important for sommeliers and the wine trade, but not necessarily great for a person simply looking for a tasty bottle.
The Important Wine Regions
Know you know the major grapes, lets talk about wine regions. There are thousands of places where wine is grown, but here are the current top ten wine regions. We’ve included the top grape varietals grown in each place.
- Bordeaux, France (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot)
- Tuscany, Italy (Sangiovese)
- Rioja, Spain (Tempranillo)
- Burgundy, France (Pinot Noir and Chardonnay)
- Piemonte, Italy (Nebbiolo)
- Napa Valley, California (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah)
- Rhone, France (Grenache and Syrah)
- Southern Australia (Grenache and Syrah)
- Mendoza, Argentina (Malbec and Cabernet Sauvignon)
- Mosel, Germany (Riesling)
Not enough? If you want to test your wine knowledge, you can check out our wine quiz and see how you stack up. Also, if you want to know the science behind these tips, come to a wine class or ask about it on our forum.